Metals transformation processes

Code: CEM 011

Credits: 10

Compulsory subject for the area of Metallurgy


  • General outlook of processing of metals.
  • Definition of parameters and variables.
  • Crystallography and dislocations: generation of defects and definition of stacking-fault energy.
  • Hardening by plastic deformation: cold work, hot deformation, mechanical hardening of metals, grain boundaries, solid solution, second phases and deformation twin.
  • Softening mechanisms - during loading: dynamic recovery, dynamic recrystallization, precipitation. After loading: static recovery, static and metadynamic recrystallization. Critical temperatures related to the thermomechanical processing.
  • Texture formation in formed parts. Textures during cold forming. Anisotropy of mechanical properties. Rolling texture. Compression texture. Influence of annealing on texture.
  • Plastic formability. Effects of processing variables in formability of metals. Formability tests. Manufacturability tests.
  • Mathematical modelling of solidification: solute distribution for processes such as welding, powder metallurgy and foundry.
  • Zone melting: impurity removal in metals, solute accumulation in metallic parts. Solutions and impacting factors.
  • Mathematical analysis of solidification oriented for foundry and welding: calculation of theoretical thermal profiles, thermal gradients and cooling rates: Impacts on the microstructural formation.
  • Continuous casting: equipment, molds, cooling systems, sprays cooling region and free-radiation zone.
  • Laser surface remelting: macrostructures and epitaxy of grains. Effects of welding pool geometry, instability criterion for microstructure: cell and dendritic growth. Eutectic reaction during Laser processing of metals.


  1. Metalurgia Mecânica, George E. Dieter, Ed. Guanabara Dois, 2a. ed., 1.981.
  2. Conformação Plástica dos Metais, Ettore Bresciani Filho, Ed. da UNICAMP, 4a. ed., 1.991.
  3. A. Garcia – “Solidificação: Fundamentos e Aplicações”. Editora da UNICAMP. 2ª. Edição. 2007.
  4. Kalpakjian, S. e Schmid, S. R., “Manufacturing Engineering and Technology”, Vol. 1, Ed. Prentice Hall, 2000.